A puppy was referred for echocardiography for suspicion of a PDA, due to a grade six heart murmur. We actually found severe pulmonary stenosis, and you can follow the story of this case in this video: This case was referred for balloon valvuloplasty, and I was introduced to a term I hadn’t heard before: suicide right ventricle. The referral centre stated that because of the right ventricular hypertrophy – in particular in the infundibular region – there was a significant risk of dynamic obstruction occurring with the sudden drop in valve pressure......
Dogs and cats with significant mitral regurgitation (MR) may show pulmonary venous flow reversal. Flow reversal is a supporting measure only, and not specific enough to be used as a standalone method of grading MR severity. Normal pulmonary vein flow pattern The normal flow pattern of the pulmonary veins shows two forward-flowing waves – systolic (S) and diastolic (D). The S wave should be of equal or greater velocity than the D wave. There is also a small reversal wave (Ar) that occurs at the time of atrial contraction. This is present even......
An increasing number of AUA members are turning to scanners with Doppler capability as their next ultrasound machine. Primarily, this is due to the higher resolution images they tend to produce (colour Doppler systems use higher spec graphics cards and other components, so even if you never use your colour, you still benefit from improvements in performance), but there are ways you can put your Colour Doppler to good use. Remember that Doppler imparts higher levels of ultrasonic energy, and should be used sparingly over the foetus itself. Obstetric sonographer......