Reptilian hearts are generally referred to as more ‘rudimentary’ than mammalian hearts, but they are perfectly adapted for their purpose. In fact, they have their own wonders – such as capabilities for self-healing – which far exceed our own. Unless you reject the theory of evolution*, their hearts give valuable insight into the evolution of human hearts. * If you do happen to reject the theory of evolution and believe that Earth was populated over a short space of time due to the arrival of extra-terrestrial beings, you probably know all about......
Following a scan I uploaded last week of subaortic stenosis in a boxer, a veterinarian colleague of mine asked me a good question: how did I know I wasn’t catching mitral regurgitation? Aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) are both systolic, both travel away from the transducer, and arise from valves which are in continuity with one another. Temporarily and spatially, therefore, mitral regurgitant jets and aortic outflow traces are very close, and at times (if the MR is very eccentric and directed along the anteroseptal wall of the left atrium), virtually inseparable,......
In the United Kingdom, there is a growing enthusiasm among recently qualified veterinarians to incorporate ‘FAST’ cardiac scans into their consultations to rule out acute pathology and obvious cardiac disease. This mirrors a similar movement in human medicine, where registrars are being encouraged to learn a limited protocol to use in the emergency setting using a portable or handheld ultrasound machine. FAST scans offer a fantastic service to pet owners, making a cardiac screen affordable and accessible to patients whose owners might otherwise decline one. It is best used to answer a......
There is a lot of debate within cardiology over what the definition of an echocardiogram should be. This has been fueled by the recent miniaturisation of ultrasound technology, its greater affordability, and the associated attempts to get ultrasound into the hands and pockets of those on the ‘front line.’ This has been most marked in the realm of human cardiology, but increasingly so within the veterinary world as wellm with many emergency vets and anaesthetists opting for handheld machines. The use of ultrasound as an additional diagnostic tool is to be encouraged, but......